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Benade, A.H. (1976): Fundamentals of Music Acoustics (Oxford University Press, London) pp. 339-343.

Boutillon, X. (1988): "Model for piano hammers: Experimental determination and digital simulation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, pp. 746-754.

Briggs, G.A. (1951): Pianos, Pianists and Sonics (Wharfdale Wireless Works, Bradford Rd., Bradford, Yorks) p. 37.

Brinsmead, Edgar (1879): The History of the Pianoforte (reissued by Singing Tree Press, Detroit, orig. pub. by Novello, Ewer and Co., London, 1879) p. 47.

Challis, John (1963): "New: A 20th Century Piano," American Music Teacher, Jul-Aug 1963, p. 20.

Conklin, Harold A. Jr. (1970): U.S. Pat. 3,523,480, "Longitudinal Mode Tuning of Stringed Instruments," Aug. 11, 1970.

Good, Edwin M. (1982): Giraffes, Black Dragons, and other Pianos (Stanford University Press) p. 9.

Hall, D.E. (1986): "Piano string excitation in the case of small hammer mass," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, pp. 141-147.

Hall, D.E. (1987a): "Piano string excitation II: General solution for a hard narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, pp. 535-546.

Hall, D.E. (1987b): "Piano string excitation III: General solution for a soft narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, pp. 547-555.

Hall, D.E. & Clark, P.J. (1987): "Piano string excitation IV: The question of missing modes," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, pp. 1913-1918.

Hall, D.E. and Askenfelt, A. (1988): "Piano string excitation V: Spectra for real hammers and strings," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, pp. 1627-1637.

Hansing, Siegfried (1888): Das Pianoforte in seinen akustischen Anlagen (New York), p. 92.

Harding, Rosamond E.M. (1933): The Piano-forte - Its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Da Capo Press, New York 1973, reprint of 1933 edition), pp. 64-66.

Helmholtz, Hermann L.F. (1863): On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (Dover Publications Inc., New York 1954, first ed. Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1863) p. 77.

Henahan, Donal (1967): "Loesser, Pianist, Exhumes 'Ghosts' to Mark Halloween," (a review of the concert), New York Times, Oct. 3, 1967.

Knoblaugh, Armond F. (1944): "The clang tone of the pianoforte," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 19, p. 102.

Leipp, Emile (1969): The Violin (University of Toronto Press), pp. 97-99.

Marcuse, Sibyl (1975): Musical Instruments, A Comprehensive Dictionary (W.W. Norton & Co., New York), p. 405.

McFerrin, W.V. (1972): The Piano - Its Acoustics (Tuners Supply Co., Boston), p. 84.

Ortman, Otto (1925): The Physical Basis of Piano Touch and Tone (E.P. Dutton & Co., New York), p. 96.

Podlesak, M. & Lee, A.R. (1988): "Dispersion of waves in piano strings," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, pp. 305-317.

Pollins, Stewart (1984): "The Pianos of Bartolomeo Cristofori," J. Amer. Musical Instrument Soc. 10, pp. 32-68.

Rayleigh Lord (Strutt, John William, 1877): The Theory of Sound (MacMillan & Co., Ltd., London, reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., New York) Vol. I, p. 252 (a quotation referring to longitudinal mode of piano and violin strings taken from p. 154 of Donkin's Acoustics).

Suzuki, H. (1986): "Vibration and sound radiation of a piano soundboard," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80, pp. 1573-1588.

Vant, Albert (1927): Piano Scale Making (pub. by Albert V. Vant, 543 Academy St., New York), p. 30.

White, William Braid (1906): Theory and Practice of Pianoforte Building (Edward Lyman Bill, New York, reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., New York 1975) p. 34.

White, William Braid (1946): Piano Tuning and Allied Arts (Tuners Supply Co., Boston) 5th ed., p. 45.

Wood, Alexander (1944): The Physics of Music (Metheun & Co., Ltd., London) p. 94.

Wolfenden, Samuel (1916): A Treatise on the Art of Pianoforte Construction (original ed. 1916, reprinted by Unwin Bros., Ltd, Old Working, Surrey, U.K., 1975), pp. 50-51.

Wolfenden, Samuel (1927): Supplement to A Treatise on the Art of Pianoforte Construction (orig. ed. 1927, reprinted by Unwin Bros., Ltd., Old Working, Surrey, U.K., 1975), p. 208.

Wood Handbook (1987): Wood as an Engineering Material (Forest Products Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.), Chap. 3, pp. 9-11.

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This lecture is one of Five lectures on the Acoustics of the piano

1990 Royal Swedish Academy of Music