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Many of the figures in this paper originally appeared in the references, and are reproduced by courtesy of the American Institute of Physics.


Boutillon, X. (1988): "Model for piano hammers: Experimental determination and digital simulation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, pp. 746-754.
Hall, D. (1986): "Piano string excitation in the case of small hammer mass," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, pp. 141-147.
Hall, D. (1987a): "Piano string excitation II: General solution for a hard narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, pp. 535-546.
Hall, D. (1987b): "Piano string excitation III: General solution for a soft narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, pp. 547-555.
Hall, D. & Clark, P. (1987): "Piano string excitation IV: The question of missing modes," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 1913-1918.
Hall, D. & Askenfelt, A. (1988): "Piano string excitation V: Spectra for real hammers and strings," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, pp. 1627-1638.
Suzuki, H. (1987): "Model analysis of a hammer-string interaction," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, pp. 1145-1151.
Wilson, F. (1986): Tone Deaf and All Thumbs (Viking Penguin, New York)

About the author


Donald E. Hall received his doctorate in Physics from Stanford University in 1967, as well as an M.A. in Music from the University of Iowa in 1973. He has been on the faculty of California State University in Sacramento since 1974. He is the author of two textbooks, Musical Acoustics (1980) and Basic Acoustics (1987). His research has dealt with piano string and hammer interaction and with the perception of musical interval mistuning; he has also worked in relativity and astrophysics. He leads a second life as a church organist and choral singer.

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This lecture is one of Five lectures on the Acoustics of the piano

1990 Royal Swedish Academy of Music